Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is predominantly an autopolyploid plant with a variable ploidy level, frequent aneuploidy and a large genome that hampers investigation of its organization. Genetic architecture studies are important for identifying genomic regions associated with traits of interest. However, due to the genetic complexity of sugarcane, the practical applications of genomic tools have been notably delayed in this crop, in contrast to other crops that have already advanced to marker-assisted selection (MAS) and genomic selection. High-throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have opened new opportunities for discovering molecular markers, especially single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion-deletion (indels), at the genome-wide level. The objectives of this study were to (i) establish a pipeline for identifying variants from genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) data in sugarcane, (ii) construct an integrated genetic map with GBS-based markers plus target region amplification polymorphisms and microsatellites, (iii) detect QTLs related to yield component traits, and (iv) perform annotation of the sequences that originated the associated markers with mapped QTLs to search putative candidate genes.